Dental caries

Dental caries is actually a defect of hard dental tissue. On its formation participates a number of causes. Basic one is plaque. It´s a soft coating which settles in places difficult to access by self-cleaning process teeth which takes place when tougher food is chewed. These sites are interdental spaces, necks and holes of teeth or grooves on the crown of the tooth. Amount of coating is different at each other. It ´s Influenced by oral hygiene, diet composition. The coating is not only the basic cause of cavity (caries), but also of periodontitis.

The coating (plaque) is formed from a large number of bacteria in saliva. It has very good adhesion to the tooth surface. As long as it stays on tooth, can cause more and more damage. Then we talk about mature plaque, which base is large number of caries bacteria and they are mostly resposible for the formation of dental caries. These bacteria are able to convert sugars into organic acids. After that they with bacterial enzymes disrupt hard dental tissue.

The dental caries is created by interaction of four factors: bacteria, sugars (carbohydrates) of food, resistance of hard dental tissue and time.

Prevention of dental caries

Prevention should focus on basic precipitating factors: plaque and sugars. That means proper and regular dental hygiene, diet with limited carbohydrates and we can also help with regular fluoridation. Fluoride helps to protect enamel by impregnating substances that support it and protect against external aggressive agents.

Adjustment of the diet must be represent by the avoiding so-called sticky sugars such as chocolate, candy and sweets in general. From these sugars microorganisms contained in the saliva immediately begin to create damaging acids. The similar efect have also sweet drinks and some fruit eg. bananas. Diet should be balanced with fiber, vitamins and minerals. Very good are vegetables and wholegrain bread that promote saliva flow.

Signs of dental caries

The classic manifestation of of dental caries is mainly pain and hypersensitivity to cold, hot, but also sweet and sour stimuli. Worse case is the hidden action of decay which is not seen but carry out destructive activities covertly. Such caries can also be temporarily stopped (don´t continue or expand). The typical colour of this caries is black. If it continues with its work can extend to the pulp.

It often happens that two adjacent teeth from common interdental space have enhanced caries in the same place. Dental caries can spread and affect the surrounding tissues and cause inflammation of the bone. The serious consequence of untreated caries can be penetration of infectious agents into the bloodstream, which is generally dangerous, and can cause serious health problems.

Treatment of dental caries

The caries is removed by using dental tools. Damaged tissue is removing and resulting space (cavity) is filled with filling material. It can be plastic and harden directly in the cavity - amalgam, composite material or glass ionomer cement), or inlay-onlay fillings are used (ceramic dental restorations made in technology by fingerprint or scan of the tooth). They are stuck into tooth defect with special cement.

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